Simple failure-mode analysis consists of looking up the description of a failure (that's the "mode" we're talking about) in a chart and seeing the corresponding cause. For example, the chart might show "burnt winding" and list "overheating" as one of the possible causes.
However, this approach is often too simplistic. What caused the overheating? Did unbalanced voltage do the deed? Perhaps misalignment and vibration were the villains — the motor is drawing more current to do the same amount of useful work.
A complete failure-mode analysis requires going all the way back to the root cause of the condition. Solve that cause, and the entire chain of causes for that mode disappears. Use a multi-layered approach to failure-mode analysis to get at the source issue.